With the help of NASA and ESA space probes, it was possible to obtain data on the comet that flew near Mars on October 19.
According to the information received, the debris of the comet, officially named as C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) caused strong meteor shower and added a new layer of ions or charged particles into the ionosphere. Ionosphere is electrically charged region in the atmosphere that reaches from 120 kilometers to several hundred kilometers above the Martian surface.
With this information, the scientists were able to establish a direct connection between the debris from the meteor shower and the subsequent formation of a transition layer of ions. The dust from the comet disappeared high in the atmosphere of Mars, creating meteor shower. It led to significant but temporary changes in the upper atmosphere of the planet and possible long-term changes. The set of ground-based and orbiting telescopes have observed this unique cosmic event.
The comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) travels from the most distant region of our solar system called the Oort Cloud. October 19, it passed the Red Planet.